Tacoma is an urban port city in Washington with a population of about 198, 397 populated with 4,181 persons per square mile according to the census of 2010. Their median age is 35.7, about 44.43% of people in Tacoma are married and about 15.18% are separated. Their average household has a size of 3 people. 60 percent of the persons residing in Tacoma are white, 10 percent are black, about 9 percent is made up of Native Americans and the rest define themselves as “”others””. Tacoma serves as the business center in the South Sound region (Johnston & Miech, 2016). When discussing the cultural beliefs and practices among African Americans this is people whose social cultures roots are based on their experience in America though they are African descent. Simply, their culture reflects that of Americans.
Their social structure is usually extended so as to comprise non-related family members with the father and mother as the decision makers. Elders are cared highly respected and cared for by their children. Most of the African Americans reside in low-income neighborhoods (Hitsman, 2016). There is the profusion of fast foods, the foods are highly priced and the reduced access to healthy foods has led to health disparities among them. It contributes to obesity and chronic diseases. They have strong religion relationships. Many churches try to maintain good health among their members. Understanding the African Americans cultural and beliefs allow care providers to quickly build connection and make sure efficient health care is given. In order to reduce health disparities among African Americans, the efforts established must address the health of individuals physically, emotionally and even spiritually.
Moreover, creating effective communication between caregivers and patients is important as well as recognizing the community’s conditions. It is also advisable one gets to know his/her patient at an individual level since not all patients follow commonly identified cultural behaviors and customs. This information is important in my clinical prevention project because it will guide me in caregiving to my patients. I will be able to relate my treatments with my patients’ cultural beliefs.
Cigarette smoking among low-income, less-educated and less-served African Americans has become a serious public health problem. Use of tobacco has been identified as a major cause of preventable illness and premature death (Hitsman, 2016). This inconsistency is of great worry as death due to tobacco smoking can easily be prevented. Cigarette smoking has been associated with coronary heart diseases, lung illnesses, the cause of various cancers such as bladder, stomach, and other parts of the body and asthma.
Tobacco use and cigarette smoking among African American youths are much less than the whites’ youth. However, that should not mean to encourage the activity since the number and the effects in the community are not positive. Unfortunately, these youths enter early adulthood with the increased number of them smoking tobacco. The number increases with increase in age. The use of tobacco African American adults is nearly the same number as that of the whites. Rendering to National Health Interview survey in the year 2015 shows that approximately 16 percent of African Americans are tobacco smokers. African Americans due to their continued use of tobacco and cigarette smoking tend to be exposed to terrific ill health and impermanence. This is regardless of them smoking fewer cigarettes daily and some start smoking at an older age.
They are likely not to cease smoking thus exposed to the effects for an extended era of their life. Smoking is a leading cause of several cancers in our body parts (Hitsman, 2016). They include stomach cancer, lung cancer, bladder cancer and colorectal cancer. Smoking is evidently accountable for nearly 88 percent of deaths due to lung cancer, which has affected a greater number of African Americans. Smoking also is a cause for heart diseases, stroke, chronic bronchitis, gastric ulcers, and emphysema.A study done showed that the frequency of cigarette smoking is at 40% of total population of Tacoma, men at 59 percent and women at about 41 percent. Adults having a meaningfully higher frequency than those aged below 22 years old (Johnston & Miech, 2016).
A higher percentage of participants in the study do not have high school education and older participants according to age smoking increased the number of cigarettes daily. It was also discovered that African American tend to initiate the use of tobacco at a younger age which would not be surprising since Tobacco manufacturers are advertising their product more among African Americans. The intended audiences for the results of the study were African Americans aged between 18 years old and 55 years old. The message source was from a research made where a sample of participants was chosen from African Americans residing in Tacoma, Washington. Participants were asked for their demographic individualities such as age, education level and family income annually (Johnston & Miech, 2016). They were also asked if they smoked how often they smoked and averagely how to make cigarettes daily.
I believe the source is sufficiently credible. This is because the participants in the study were from the intended audience that is African Americans in Tacoma. The participants were also picked at the given range of ages. The study done has shown the unpleasant outcomes of smoking cigarettes and tobacco use among youths, adults” either in their early youth-hood or late adulthood. The recommended action to reduce the deaths and negative effects of the use of tobacco and cigarette smoking is first to reduce as much as possible the contact of this substance with the group in the study (Hitsman, 2016). The tobacco manufacturers should stop taking advantage of African Americans by advertising the use of tobacco to them aggressively.
The African Americans should also be educated on the negative effects of continued use of these substances. Initiating use of tobacco at an early age should also be discouraged. Caregivers are also advised to screen for use of tobacco and advice on users to quit.Some of the threats we are trying to avoid are extinct of African Americans in our societies. Smoking is the leading cause of cancer. Lung cancer a deadly illness is among them, cancers of stomach, mouth, larynx, pancreas, liver, kidney and even uterine cervix, Others being stroke and heart disease all resulting from the use of tobacco and smoking cigarette. The non-smokers are also affected because they smoke indirectly from inhaled air (Hitsman, 2016). This can cause sudden infant death syndrome, respiratory diseases as well as severe asthma attacks in kids.
The medium through which this message is delivered is seemingly appropriate. It is delivered through media platforms. Recently almost every person has access to smartphones through which they can access the internet. Nevertheless, they should avoid bulk information which appears boring. An alternative way of passing the information should be looked for. The message is culturally appropriate to the group since even our culture doesn’t allow substance misuse. There is a good number of African Americans who do not find its use appropriate. The method used to analyze the data was statistical program Stata that is Stata Corp, College Station TX, 2003.
The campaign against the use of tobacco and smoking of cigarettes seem to be losing the use of these substances is still persisting. The effects of continued use these substances are openly seen. The effects are not pleasant at all. From an early age, youths opt to be educated on the effects of misuse of these substances. These will make awareness to them so as even in their older age they won’t use these substances. Deaths due to cancer caused by smoking cigarette and use of tobacco are preventable and every person should heed to campaign against the use of these substances.
Maine Health: A Guide to Creating and Evaluating Patient Materials available at: http://www.mainehealth.org/workfiles/MH_LRC/MH_Print%20Guidelines_Intranet.pdf This reference provides several different methods of assessing readability.
Readability Tool13(1).pdf AHRQ Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/quality-patient-safety/quality-resources/tools/literacy-toolkit/healthliteracytoolkit.pdf
National Center for Cultural Competence (NCCC): Choosing & Adapting Health Promotion Materials available at: http://nccc.georgetown.edu/documents/Materials_Guide.pdf Hitsman, B. (2016). A new blueprint for addressing tobacco use disparities to reduce health disparities: the sociopharmacology theory of tobacco addiction.World Health Organization. (2015).
Fact sheet on ingredients in tobacco products.Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., Schulenberg, J. E., & Miech, R. A. (2016). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2015: Volume II, college students and adults ages 19-55.(Hitsman, 2016)