Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has long affected many people, without many becoming aware of its on-course onset. In line to try and understand the manifestation and behavioral patterns of this psychological disorder in children, I choose to deal with the case of Jeremiah. In the cause of presenting his behaviors, the child has been discovered with this anxiety disorder even during his early age, although, it has not worsened for him. With my interest, therefore, I find it more interesting to handle this case, which will provide me with a deeper knowledge and understanding of ways of dealing with him, including the theories advanced to this psychological disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may have variety of causes in an individual.
These includes such as environmental, genetic, and parenting styles. In our case, Jeremiah has had variety of parenting difficulties and neglecting which could be identified as the major causes of this disorder manifesting in his childhood. The fact he does not have close parents, who pays attention in his activities is one of the major cause of his precipitating symptoms. It is reported that his parents are always fixed in their jobs, with his father working overseas, while his mother having long working hours which causes the child to feel little cared for. Secondly, the child has, during his little age, learnt on how to take care of his chores, which gives him little time to interact just like other children. this also gives the child space to develop a disorder, which is manifested in this form of ADHD. Moreover, environmental factors of Jeremiah can play a major role in contributing to his current condition.
Growing in an urban setting, with crowded areas heavily contributes to manifestation of this disorder. Children in such areas, who take little note of what they are doing, such as playing on streets, have a high risk to manifest these symptoms. It can also be as a result of lack of resources for the child. Since his parents are middle class, and probably do not get everything for the child’s needs, they spend much time looking for the little resources which in turn result to a child not having much time with his parents. Major theories have been developed to explain the major events that occurs in development of children. alteration of these suggestions by theorists leads to development of a psychological disorders. One of the major theories which can be used to explain Jeremiah’s current situation is Bowlby’s attachment theory. This theorist believed that early relationships between the caregivers and the child greatly contribute to his development and continues to make significant social influence throughout the child’s life (Goldberg Muir & Kerr 2013).
Since children are born with an innate desire to bond, denying them this chance greatly influences their psychological and mental functioning, which may in turn influence development of such disorders as ADHD. In this case, Jeremiah does not get attachment, which it can clearly be seen as the major influence in his psychological development. Another theory which can be used to explain Jeremiahs condition is social learning theory, which was coined by Albert Bandura. Based on his theory, both reinforcement and conditioning of certain events can be used to explain human learning process. Also, these behaviors can be learned through observation of other individuals around him. This based explains Jeremiahs association with other children whom they play together. Since ADHD can be acquired by learning method through the environment, it is very likely that he learns it from his peers.
Continuous interactions with other children can actually, be the major cause of the child’s behaviour manifestation. This is because reinforcement takes place and the ADHD behavior is impacted in the child through such things as play or bullying (Thomas & Simpson 2014). From Bowlby’s point of view, this issue of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be solved by applying a better attachment to Jeremiah. Thus, both the parents and the aunt who takes care of them should get more attached and closer to the him, listen to him and grant his wishes including performing major chores for him. This will enable the child feel more connected to the family, and can eventually correct his behavior and revert to normal behavioral patterns. Consequently, based on Bandura’s learning theory, the behavioural pattern manifested by Jeremiah can be unlearned. This can occur through series of event including dissociating from his friends who they play together. It means the child should learn a new behavioral pattern, which in turn will cause him to forget the old one.
In conclusion, it is very clear ADHD is an interesting form of disorder to learn about as a student. It can result from variety of causes which can be managed in both long and short term. The application of attachment and social learning theories makes explanation of these conditions easier to understand and follow its treatment process. although, people manifested with ADHD might show variety of abnormal behavioral patterns, through proper treatment of the psychological disorder results to the child reverting to normal behavior. This might take short or long period of time, depending on the severity of the condition the child is suffering from.
Goldberg, S., Muir, R., & Kerr, J. (Eds.). (2013). Attachment theory: Social, developmental, and clinical perspectives. Routledge.Thomas, K. J., & Simpson, S. S. (2014). Social learning theory. Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 4951-4963.