American Revolution ending led to the formation of a new republic. The turmoils accrued from the loopholes created in the articles of confederation were the hindrance for the thirteen colonies in the formation of the new nation. The revolution was conservative in comparison to Russian revolution since it never a radical change (McNees, 2014). After the revolution was over capitalism, slavery and money remained. It led to the rise of the unicameral legislature in the state government. The revolution led to the change from the article of confederation to the constitution. The objective of this paper is to learn the comparison between the articles of confederation and constitution.
The article of Confederation was the first constitution of United States of America. It set the laws of federal government management and running process. It came into practice from November 1777 after the amendment made in June 1776 by the second continental congress. The production of the articles was done by the legislative body that was believed to have the understanding with a confederacy of the sovereignty, independence and the freedom of the new nation(McPherson, 2003). It consisted of thirteen articles which established a confederation known as the United States of America.The Congress could request the state government authority for settling the public debts. On request, twelve states approved apart from Rhode Island which led to defeat to the application. The congress proceeded on borrowing funds and sold western land in aid to raise more funds.
Articles of Confederation were able to bring all the state to form one national government. However, it was weak therefore having many problems on the progress such as Congress had no powers to raise revenue through tax collection(McNees, 2014). The financial constrained the congress from paying the army, and as a result, there were threats to the national defense. There was economical sabotaged since there was no regulation that directed the state on issuing of standard money. The other countries felt betrayed since their treaties were not taken into action by the states. These weakened the governing of all the states since each had formulated their laws(McPherson, 2003). The Congress was denied powers to enforce laws, yet it had them.
The constitution gives more powers to the Congress unlike the article of confederation. All the states were to remain with their self-government powers and sovereignty, authority and right to govern them (McPherson, 2003). The confederation did not state either the United States of America was a government or state. However, it stated that states were a solid group of friends joined by a common interest that safeguarded their liberties.
The supermajorities were highly in a quest for a subsequent defect in the Articles of Confederation. The adjustment required approval by all the thirteen states and endorsement of at least nine states (Prince & Baron, 1867). Some delegates often skipped the delegation conference; therefore, one or two states could defeat legislative proposals of main agendas. The Congress had no powers on securing the treaties accepted. The foreign nations lacked faith in the confederation since of the fear that their treaties could not be honored (Tindall & Shi, 2016). It contributed to the rise of the formulation of a new constitution. The constitution was to unify the entire states, whereby one government could govern them.
Congress was offered with more powers pass bills and make amendments. It also enjoys more power from article 1, section 8 of the constitution which include; power to declare war, raise revenue, regulate businesses, to establish federal courts and their jurisdictions, raise an army and navy and make rules on immigration (McNees, 2014). Unlike the articles which only gave power to Congress to pass laws, the constitution offers more adequate powers making them in charge of the laws of all the states in the United States of America.
After the Revolutionary War, the state government feared to give the new American government too much constitutional power. Thomas Paine ought to seek changes that would promote democracy, while others like Alexander Hamilton feared to give too much power to the common man. Their fears were that act uncontrollably (Tindall & Shi, 2016). Moreover, the Patriots continued with the argument over who should be given the right to vote, but John Adams warned on his argumentative theory that allowing the poor to vote could destroy all distinctions of development of the nation. Delegates devised a plan in 1787 convention, for a stronger federal government with three branches–executive, legislative and judicial. After the victory of the American Revolution led to the demands of the state for having a stronger government to acquire political, economic and social stability.
In 1786 Alexander both a lawyer and politician called for a constitutional convention. The confederation congress also endorsed the idea inviting the entire delegate in Philadelphia for a 13 state convention. The convention took place on independence hall which was the former Pennsylvania state house on 25th May 1787. Except for the Rhode state which never sent its delegate, 55 delegates were representing the other twelve states. It failed to send its delegation due to the few that the central government would control all the economical business (McNees, 2014).
The popular vote cast selected George Washington as the new president of the central government. The delegates comprised of an educated class of farmers, bankers, lawyers and merchants who had previously served in the continental congress or army and colonial legislatures (Prince & Baron, 1867). Their religious affiliation was that most were Protestants. Apart from Benjamin Franklin, aged 81, all the other delegates were in the age bracket of 3os and 40s. The delegates had been summoned by the Congress to make amendments on the articles of confederation. The convention’s five-member Committee of Style drafted the constitution consisting of 4,200 words by September 1787. Washington was the first one to sign followed by 39 delegates while three refused to sign. The draft was ratified and was passed into law in 1789. It contains the bill of rights, economic regulations, and political regulations.
The oppose of the constitution were regarded as the federalist while those who opposed anti-federalists. They opposed since their views were that the national government had been given more powers. Five states Delaware, Pennsylvania, Georgia, Connecticut and New Jersey on 7th December 1787 quickly ratified the constitution. The rejection was experienced due to its failure to reserve delegated powers to the states and protection rights like freedom of speech, the press, and religion.
Beginning from February 1788 the other state started the ratification of the constitution, and on 4th March 1789, the constitution became into force. Washington George was inaugurated as the first United States of America president (McPherson, 2003). On February 1790 the US Supreme Court held its first session marking when the government was fully operational. Rhode Island was final on the ratification of the constitution on May 1790. The original constitution is displayed at National Archive in Washington D.C.
McNees, T. (2014). Creating a National Government: The Origins of the Constitution. Dayton: Milliken Publishing Company.
McPherson, J. (2003). The Illustrated Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press.
Prince, B., & Baron, L. (1867). The Articles of Confederation Vs. the Constitution: The Progress of Nationality Among the People and in the Governmen. New York: Putnam.
Tindall, G., & Shi, D. (2016). America: A Narrative History, Tenth Edition. New York : W. W. Norton & Company,.