The human body has the capability of remodeling and regenerating small flaws. Severe injuries and large defects which come about as a result of illnesses or abnormalities may be so hard to heal. The body may not heal them on itself hence, there are regenerative approaches based on the stem cell and tissue engineering applications. These are therapies that are brought up with a primary aim of remodeling, regenerating or to support tissues that are damaged (Griffith & Gail, 1001). Also, it enhances the healing process by way of activating the body’s capacity to self-heal. Generating artificial tissues by planting the cells onto scaffolds and putting the engineered tissues into the patient’s body.
Today several tissues have been induced to regenerate. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a natural microenvironment where cells live and consist of proteins that form fiber such as collagens. The ECM and ECM components have been used by experts to as natural biomaterials (O’brien, 89). ECM being natural biomaterials, have been used in regenerative medicine for cancer drug delivery and cancer therapy.
In as much as the ECM is heterogeneous, its structure differs from one tissue to another. Cells with particular organs secrete, gather around and regularly modify the ECM. After that, the cells bind through the cell receptors to the extracellular matrix which thus activates reactions like differentiation, migration and proliferation (Murphy & Anthony, 165).
The ECM contains proteins in different sizes with a distinctive effect on the behavior of the cell. Therefore, the proteins are used as biomaterials for regenerative applications to induce the generation of scaffolds that are functional. Modifications on the surface play a primary role in regenerative medicine as it promotes cell adhesion thus improving biocompatibility. Through recellularization, the ECM scaffold with the cells of the patient thus removing the immune response.
Griffith, Linda G., and Gail Naughton. “Tissue engineering–current challenges and expanding opportunities.” Science 295.5557 (2002): 1009-1014.
Murphy, Sean Vincent, and Anthony Atala. “Organ engineering“ combining stem cells, biomaterials, and bioreactors to produce bioengineered organs for transplantation.”
Bioessays 35.3 (2013): 163-172.O’brien, Fergal J. “Biomaterials & scaffolds for tissue engineering.” Materials today 14.3 (2011): 88-95.”